Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes | Questions Answers |


Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes | Physical Education | Term 2 | Questions Answers |

Physical Education : Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes : The study of long and short term effects of training and body condition of an athlete is termed as Sports Physiology. Moreover, it can be correlate as study of how function and structure of our body is altered by exercise or sports activity. Certain physiological changes such as aerobic capacity, muscle composition, size of muscles, intensity of the nerve impulse, muscle strength, stroke volume, intensity of nerve impulse, blood pressure takes place when an individual do physical exercise. Let’s have a look at some of the important Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes.

Questions/Answers of Physiology and Injuries in Sports

Question 1: What are the various physiological factors that determine the components of physical fitness?

Answer: There are various physiological factors that determine the components of physical fitness such as strength, speed, endurance and flexibility. 

Question 2: Discuss any three physiological factors that helps in determining strength.

Answer: The physiological factors determining strength as stated below:

  • Size of muscle: The size of the muscle is directly proportional to force applied by the muscle. Males are found to be stronger since they have larger and bigger muscles in comparison to females. It could easily be in hens by strength training thereby resulting in improved strength.
  • Body Weight: Individuals who are heavier are found to be more stronger than the individuals who are lighter. Hence bodyweight also determine the strength of an individual.
  • Intensity of the nerve impulse: The force applied by the muscle is dependent on the number of contracting motor units. Thus more the number of motor units more will be the contraction of the muscle and more will be the strength or force produced.

Question 3: What are the types of muscle fibres?

Answer: There are two types of muscle fibres: 

  • Fast twitch fibres (White Fibres)
  • Slow twitch fibres (Red fibres)
  • These are capable to contract faster and can produce more force.
  • These are not capable of contracting faster but they can contract for longer duration.

Question 4: Elaborate any three physiological factors determining speed.

Answer: Speed is also a component in determining the physical fitness of an individual. The various physiological factors determining speed are discussed below:

  • Muscle Composition: the muscles having greater number of fast twitch fibres contract with more speed as compared to the muscles having low percentage of fast twitch fibres.
  • Flexibility: It is also a factor that helps in determining the speed to a certain extent. The flexibility allows an individual to perform movement with higher range .
  • Mobility of the nervous system: The contraction and relaxation of muscles takes place at the maximum possible speed and this is made possible by rapid excitation and inhibition of concerned motor centres. This is called as mobility of the nervous system. This excitation and inhibition can be maintained by nervous system only for few seconds after which tension is caused in the entire body.

Question 5: What do you mean by oxygen intake and oxygen uptake?

Answer: Oxygen Intake- The amount of oxygen that can be taken by the lungs from the atmosphere is known as oxygen intake. If the intake is higher then it would be better for achieving the higher VO2 max.
Oxygen Uptake- The amount if oxygen that can be absorbed and consumed by the working muscles through the blood is known as oxygen uptake. It depends on the rate of diffusion. Moreover, the speed and amount of oxygen consumption also depends on number and size of mitochondria.

Question 6: Explain the various physiological factors that helps in determining flexibility as the component of physical fitness.

Answer: The various physiological factors determining flexibility as the component of physical fitness are as follows:

  • Age and Gender: Flexibility decreases with the increase in age. Moreover, gender is also a factor in determining flexibility. Generally it is observed that females tends to be more flexible than males.
  • Joint structure: Sone joints have greater range of execution or movement as compared to the others.
  • Stretchability of muscles: Muscles tend to get shorter and restricts the possible range of movement at a joint if the muscles are not stretched regularly.
  • Muscle strength: In order to make the movements possible against gravity or any external force, muscles must have the maximum level of strength.

Question 7: Briefly discuss the effects of exercise on cardio respiratory system.

Answer: The various effects of exercise of cardio respiratory system are as discussed below:

  • Increase in the size of heart: the muscles of the heart increase in size and strength if we perform exercise regularly. Moreover the heart walls also grow stronger and thicker.
  • Increase in the cardiac output: it is the amount of blood that can be pumped by the heart in one minute and the cardiac output can be increased by performing regular exercise.
  • Increase in blood flow: more blood can be redistributed to those tissues which have immediate demand and less blood to those which have less demand for oxygen by the cardiovascular system. Hence resulting in efficient blood redistribution.
  • Increase in endurance: by performing exercise regularly and during its can be increased in an individual. The individuals who perform exercises regularly have higher endurance as compared to those who do not perform exercise.
  • Increase in vital air capacity: it is the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled with the maximum effort by an individual. It can be increased efficiently by performing regular exercises.
  • Increase in blood volume: blood volume can efficiently be enhanced by performing regular exercise since there is an increase in plasma volume. Moreover, the higher number of red blood cells are produced by the body in order to supply the muscles with oxygen during heavy exercises.

Question 8: Enumerate the effects of exercises on the muscular system.

Answer: There are following effects of exercises on muscular system if performed regularly.

  • Change in shape and size of muscles: By performing exercise regularly the cells of muscles can be enlarged which results in the change in shape and size of muscles.
  • Muscles remain in tone position: muscles can become firm and remain under the some degree of contraction. They remain in tone position if exerciser performed regularly.
  • Controls extra fat: Exercise could efficiently burn extra calories that is deposited in the form of fat.
  • Formation of more capillaries: A number of new muscles are formed for efficient blood circulation resulting in change in colour of muscles.
  • Body posture remains correct: there are very less chances of postural deformities if exercise are done on regular basis. Moreover the strength of muscles increases that keeps the body poster in accurate position.
  • Delays fatigue: The main reason behind fatigue is the formation of carbon dioxide, lactic acid and acid phosphate. Vacuum relation of these substances become very less in an individual who exercises on regular basis.

Question 9: What are the types of sports injuries?

Answer: There three types of sports injuries:

  • Soft tissue injuries
  • Bone injuries
  • Joint injuries

Question 10: What are the types of soft tissue injuries?

Answer: Soft tissue injuries are classified as follows:

  • Contusion
  • Strain
  • Sprain
  • Abrasion
  • Bruises

Question 11: Discuss about various points through which you can prevent injuries.

Answer: Various ways can be used in order to prevent injuries as discussed below:

  • All parts of the body should be exercised properly. During warm up stretching exercise must be performed.
  • The quality of the sports equipment used in games and sports should be good.
  • In case of fatigue player should not continue to play.
  • The player must wear protective equipment while playing.
  • During the practice, training and competition player should be alert and careful.
  • The field should be smooth and clean.
  • The complete scientific knowledge about the game is a must.
  • The protective equipment should be according to the requirement of the game.
  • All the rules and regulations of the game should be followed by the player.
  • The body should not be pushed beyond the current fitness level of an individual.

Question 12: Elucidate about various soft tissue injuries.

Answer: ContusionIt is a muscle injury and is mainly caused due to a direct hit with or without any sports equipment. In this blood vessels are broken and bleeding may occur in the muscles. The accumulation of blood and fluid from the injured blood vessel in the tissue leads to the raised area of contusion.

StrainIt is also muscle injury. It is mainly caused by twisting or pulling of a muscle or tendon. The complete version can be ruptured resulting in immobility of that part.

SprainIt is a ligament injury and mainly occur due to tearing of ligament. Injury, swelling, inflammation and sever pain are the common symptoms.

AbrasionIt mainly occurs due to the friction with certain equipment due to the fall over an area where the bone is quite close to the skin. The blood vessels are exposed in the layer of skin is lost. Grazes or scraps are mild abrasions.

BruisesThis cannot be seen clearly since the upper layer of the skin remains unaffected whereas the inner tissues are damaged. The blood vessels are ruptured due to which blood spreads under the skin. Initially it actually appears red and after few hours turns blue or dark purple.

Question 13: Elucidate about the various types of bone injuries.
Answer: The various types of bone injuries are as discussed below:

  • Simple fracture: The bone is broken at one place in the fracture is without any wound.
  • Compound fracture: Broken bone comes out through the skin and skin and muscles are also damaged along with the fracture.
  • Complicated fracture: The bone is broken along with the damaging of the internal organs.
  • Greenstick fracture: Such type of fracture are commonly seen in children since their bones are soft and delicate.
  • Comminuted fracture: In this the bone is broken into three or more pieces.
  • Impacted fracture: In this the end of the fractured bone enters into the other bone.

Question 14: What are the main causes of fracture?
Answer: Fracture can be caused due to the following causes:

  • Sudden fall on hard surface
  • Running or walking for long distance and for long duration of time
  • Forceful and unnatural movements
  • Due to osteoporosis
  • Due to direct strike with any solid sports equipment.

Question 15: What do you mean by first aid? Discuss the aims and objectives of first aid in detail.

Answer: The first help that a wounded or an accidental person get before the arrival of the doctor is commonly referred as first aid.
To save the precious life of the wounded person is the main aim of the first aid.

The objective of first aid are as discussed below:

  • The main objective of the first aid is to save the life of the victim.
  • The another objective of first aid is to alleviate the suffering and pain of the wounded person.
  • To prevent the condition of the wounded person or victim from getting worse.
  • To start the process of recovery as soon as possible.
  • To procure the early medical aid.


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