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Training in Sports Class 12 Notes | Physical Education | Term 2 | Questions / Answers |

Physical Education : Training in Sports Class 12 Notes

Training in Sports Class 12 Notes : We all are familiar with the word training. It simply refers to the process of preparation for any task. In sports this term is usually referred as sports training. Sports training is the basic form of preparing the sports person for any competition or event. Systematic training could efficiently result in enhancing the athletes fitness level. All the basic type of preparation that are needed for the sports person are included in it. It is simply the systematically plan preparation with the help of various exercise. Let’s have a look at some of the important questions of Chapter and Training in Sports Class 12 Notes.

Questions / Answers of Training in Sports

Question 1: What you mean by the term strength?

Answer: The capacity of a whole body or any of its path to exert force is defined as strength. It is the amount of force a muscle or group of muscle can exert and the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance in one maximum effort.

Question 2: What are the types of strength?

Answer: There are various types of strength required during various types of sports. Basically, strength can be divided into the two types:

  • Dynamic Strength
  • Static Strength

Question 3: What do you understand by dynamic strength and static strength?

Answer: Dynamic Strength- This type of strength is also known as isotonic strength since it is related to movements. This type of strength is usually required in pull ups and push ups. There is a diminishing tendency in dynamic strength while performing such workout and as a result after sometime muscles refuses to do work. At this time and individual is not in the condition of doing even one extra pull up or push up. The basic thing about it is that movements are clearly visible while someone uses dynamics strength.

Static Strength: It is commonly known as isometric strength. It can easily be measured by dynamometre. Movements cannot be seen directly in static strength. The ability of muscles to act against resistance is referred as static strength. It is used in weightlifting in phases.

Question 4: Dynamic strength is divided into three parts name them.

Answer: Generally, dynamics strength can be divided into the following three parts:

  • Maximum Strength
  • Explosive Strength
  • Strength Endurance

Question 5: Define Maximum Strength?

Answer: The ability to work against maximum resistance is defined as maximum strength. This type of strength is not used in maximum sports yet it is used in such sports where very heavy resistance are to be tackled. Example: Weightlifting, Shot put, Hammer throw, Discuss throw and Javelin throw. Whereas there are some sports where the strength is used for a very short period of time. Example: Take off in long jump, high jump and triple jump.

Question 6: Elucidate about strength Endurance.

Answer: The combination of strength and endurance abilities is termed as strength endurance. It is ability to overcome resistance under the condition of fatigue. It can either be a form of static or dynamic strength depending on the fact whether the movement is static or dynamic. It is used in various sports such as long distance races, road cycling, swimming etc.

Question 7: What do you understand by explosive strength?

Answer: The ability to overcome resistance or to act against resistance with high speed is defined as explosive strength. It is simply the combination of strength and speed abilities. It is generally used in various sports such as sprint starts, Weightlifting, high jump, long jump, hammer throw, javelin throw, discus throw, pole vault and shot put. On the other hand it is also used in some endurance event specifically in start and spurt phases. This type of strength is also known as explosive power since in various sports it is applied just light explosion.

Question 8: List the type of exercises through which strength could be efficiently improved.

Answer: Isometric Exercise
Isotonic Exercise
Isokinetic Exercise

Question 9: What is Isometric Exercise?

Answer: Those exercises which are not visible and there are no direct movements in them are known as isometric exercise. In this the work is performed but is not observed directly.

  • A group of muscles are particularly stretched more than other group of muscles. Over the length of the muscle do not change when these exercise are performed. A slight tremor is felt by the muscles if these exercise are done for a long period of time.
  • In this work is done during these exercises since the force is applied but scientifically we cannot say that work is done.
  • Increase in body temperature is observed while performing these exercise.
  • Though these exercise require less time and can be performed anywhere since no equipment is required yet these should not be performed by children and untrained person.

Question 10: Elucidate about Isotonic Exercises.

Answer: Those exercise in which movement can be seen directly are defined as isotonic exercises.
It tone up the muscles and in hence the flexibility of muscles. Even the length of muscles could also be increased by performing these exercises.
Example: Running, Jumping on the spot , Exercise with medicine ball.

Question 11: What do you understand by Isokinetic Exercises?

Answer: The exercises that are performed on specially designed machines wherein a special type of muscle contraction is involved.

  • In this the speed of contraction can be adjusted as per the individuals capacity.
  • Individuals performing isokinetic exercises on machine must remember this that he/she has to apply force throughout the range of movement.
  • It can be used effectively for the development of strength by fixing the number of repeated addition or by reducing and increasing the speed.

Question 12: What is the basic difference between Isotonic and Isometric exercises?

Answer: In isotonic exercises, during the range of movement contraction of muscle applies maximum force only at a particular angle in isokinetic exercises maximum force is applied throughout the complete range of movement by contraction of muscles.

Question 13: Define Endurance.

Answer: The ability to resist fatigue is defined as endurance. It is the result of psychological capacity of an individual in order to sustain movement over a period of time.

Question 14: Discuss the types of endurance according to the nature of activity.

Answer: According to the nature of activity there are following three types of endurance:

  • Basic Endurance – It is also known as aerobic endurance. Ability to perform movement in which large muscles are involved and activity to be performed is done at a slow pace for long duration.
    Example: jogging at moderate speed for more than 30 minutes.
  • General Endurance – It is ability to resist fatigue you that is caused by various types of activities. The duration of activity is much shorter than that required for basic endurance.
  • Specific Endurance – It is ability to resist fatigue you caused by a particular sports activity. Since the nature of fatigue is variable for different activity specific endurance so vary respectively.

Question 15: Discuss the types of endurance according to the duration of activity.

Answer: According to the duration of activity there are following three types of endurance:

  • Speed Endurance – It is ability to resist fatigue give in activities lasting up to 45 seconds. It is dependent on power and ability of energy production.
  • Short term endurance- It is ability to resist fatigue give in activities lasting from 45 seconds to 2 minutes. It is mainly dependent on strength and speed Endurance.
  • Middle term Endurance- It is ability to resist factor give in activities lasting from 2 to 11 minutes.
  • Long term Endurance- It is ability to resist fatigue view in activity is lasting for more than 11 minutes.

Question 16: What is continuous training method? Discuss the advantages of continuous training method?

Answer: It is the method in which an exercise is performed for a long duration without any break at a low intensity. The duration of the exercise should not be less than 30 minutes and the heart beat rate remains in between 140-160 beats per minute.
Advantages:

  • Glycogen in muscle and liver can be effectively increased.
  • An individual becomes well determined under the condition of fatigue.
  • An individual becomes self disciplined and self confident.
  • The number and size of mitochondria can be increased.
  • It effectively increases the efficiency of heart and lungs.

Question 17: What is Fartlek training method? Discuss about its advantages and disadvantages?

Answer: It is a training method that blends continuous and interval training. In this space or speed is not pre planned and is left upon the discretion of individual. In this the individual can change speed according to the change in surroundings. The duration of the training lasts a minimum of 45 minutes and heartbeat ranges between 140 to 180 per minute.

Advantages:

  • It enhances the cardiovascular endurance.
  • It makes the body versatile.
  • It is quite flexible in nature.
  • It allows the number of athletes to take part simultaneously.
  • It is easily adapted to an athletes need.

Disadvantages:

  • The efforts of trainee cannot be easily seen.
  • The chances of accidents are high since it is not pre planned.
  • It may result in giving up of efforts by athlete.

Question 18: What is Interval training method? Discuss about its advantages and disadvantages?

Answer: This training method is simply based upon the effort and recovery principle. In this the athlete is allowed to take a recovery period after each speedy workout.

Advantages:

  • It can effectively increase patience athletes.
  • Fair judgement can be easily given to the athletes.
  • It can effectively help in measuring the progress of the athlete.
  • It allow the athlete to perform more workout in a shorter duration.
  • Athlete can get suggestions during the recovery period by the coach.

Disadvantages:

  • Chances of injuries are high.
  • There are chances of heart disease due to regular training.
  • The top performance of the athlete did not remain up to the competition time.

Question 19: Define speed and discuss the types of speed in detail.

Answer: Speed is simply the ability to move from one place to another in the shortest time possible. The various types of speed are stated below:

  • Reaction Ability- It is the ability to react effectively or quickly to any action or signal. Reaction ability is of two types:
    Simple reaction ability- it is simply the ability to react quickly to the known signal.
    Complex reaction ability- it is ability to react quickly and accurately to any unexpected signal.
  • Acceleration ability- It is the ability to achieve the maximum speed from the stationary position or from a lower speed state.
  • Movement Speed- It is the ability to do the particular movement in the minimum possible time. It is mainly dependent upon flexibility, technique and coordinative abilities.
  • Locomotor ability- It is ability to maintain the maximum speed for the maximum time.
  • Speed Endurance – is the ability to perform movements with the high-speed under the condition of fatigue.

Question 20: What do you mean by flexibility? Discuss the various types of flexibility? What are the methods to improve flexibility?

Answer: The ability to execute movement with greater amplitude or range is defined as flexibility. There are various types of flexibility that are stated below:

  • Passive flexibility: The ability to execute movement with greater amplitude with external help or with the help of partner is usually defined as passive flexibility.
  • Active flexibility: The ability to execute movement with greater amplitude without external help. It can be further divided into two types- static and dynamic flexibility depending on the fact whether the individual is in motion or in static position.

Flexibility can be effectively improved by the following methods:

  • Ballistic method
  • Static Stretching method
  • Dynamic Stretching method
  • Proprioceptive Neuro-muscular facilitation technique

Question 21: Discuss the coordinative abilities in detail.

Answer: The relatively stabilized and generalized patterns of motor control and regulation pocess is termed as coordinative abilities. These enable the sportsperson to do various activities or movements effectively and accurately. The types of coordinative abilities are stated below:

  • Orientation Ability- Ability to determine the position of a body
  • Coupling Ability- Ability to combine the movement of different body parts
  • Reaction Ability- Ability to react quickly and effectively to any signal.
  • Balance Ability- Ability to maintain balance during the whole body movements and to regain balance after balance disturbing movement.
  • Rhythm Ability- Ability to do movement as per the required rhythm.
  • Adaptation Ability- Ability to adjust movement as per the change in situation.
  • Differentiation Ability- Ability to attain a high level accuracy and economy of separate body movement. 

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