Environment Class 12 | Sustainable Development | Features | Chapter 12 |
Meaning of Environment
Environment refers to all those conditions and their effects which influence the life of human. It includes water, air and land and their interrelationship with one another.
Importance of Environment
Provides Resources: Environment provides resources at free of cost which can be used as input such as wood, water, soil etc.
Sustains Life: Environment provides necessary ingredients which are essential for humans such as soil, air, water etc.
Assimilates Waste: Environment absorbs waste which is generated from the activity of production and consumption.
Enhances Quality of Life: Environment increases the quality of life such as rivers, mountains, deserts etc.
Problems Related to Environment
Pollution: Pollution refers to that activity which challenges the purity of resources such as land, water, air etc. and pollute them.
Air Pollution: Air Pollution refers to the mixture of harmful components like ozone along with oxygen in the air.
Water Pollution: Water pollution refers to the mixture of wastes like domestic waste, industrial waste along with pure water.
Noise Pollution: Excessive noise which causes irritation and unnecessary fatigues the mind is known as noise pollution.
Excess Exploitation: Excess Exploitation refers to the overuse of the natural resources so that growth can be higher.
Deforestation: Deforestation refers to the situation wherein tree are cut down on the large scale to satisfy the demand of wood to industries.
Degradation of Land: Degradation of land refers to the loss in the fertility of the land owing to soil erosion and water logging.
Causes of Environmental Problems
Excess Population: The level of population is increasing day by day owing to which forests are cut down so that more residential land can be made.
Increase in Urbanisation: With the increase in the urbanisation, the demand for land increases and natural resources are excessively exploited to satisfy the increase demand.
Increase in Industralisation: With the rapid growth of industrial sector, the water, air and noise pollution increases for industries emits smoke.
Disregards the Civic Norms: People in India are used to littering on roads and using loud speaker and horns which disregards the civic norms.
Use of Chemical Fertilizers: Different types of fertilizer and pesticides are used by farmers to increase the productivity which decreases the fertility of land and health of consumer.
Increase in Level of Poverty: Poors are used to cutting trees for fuel wood owing to which the natural resources are eroded.
Steps to Save Environment
Social Awareness: Awareness about the pollution and the ways to correct it should spread in the country.
Afforestation Campaigns: Afforestation campaigns should be launched to protect the trees from cutting.
Control on Population: The rising population should be checked so that environment can be protected.
Control on Pollution: The environment can be protected by controlling the air and water pollution which is caused by industries.
Management of Water: The river water should be cleaned and supply of clean drinking water should be provided to rural people.
Management of Waste: The solid waste should be managed through chemical process and rural waste should be decomposed.
Sustainable development refers to the process of development of economy with the aim of providing the quality of life to both present and future generation. In this, the natural environment is not threaten for the growth process of the economy.
Features of Sustainable Development
Increases the Economic Welfare: The sustainable development focuses on the use of natural resources in such a way that economic welfare can be increased.
Rationalised Use of Natural Resources: The natural resource should be used in a rational manner so that they are not over exploited.
Check on Pollution: Under sustainable development the resources are used in such a manner that the environmental pollution is less.
Strategies Adopted For Sustainable Development
Use of Renewable Resources: The renewable sources of energy should be used as they are available in abundant quantity such as use of solar energy, wind energy etc.
Shift to Organic Farming: The farmers should shift from general farming to organic farming for organic farming uses less chemical inputs to yield the crop.
Manages the Waste: The waste should be managed by composting and using them for organic farming rather than flowing into the streams and rivers
Use of Public Means of Transport: The public transport should be preferred in place of private vehicles as more population is transported from one place to another at a cheap source and by using less resources.